(Map of Ancient Greece)(1) The Freedom Group. Class of free people, the community group made up of royal officials, soldiers, merchants and entrepreneurs.They amounted to only approximately 12% of the population consisting of ancient Greek foreign residents and foreigners.Traders who contributed to the state of Ancient Greece can be a major citizen.
(2) class of slaves. The number of the slave about 80% which is generally not the original Ancient Greek. They are prisoners of war or the needy. Slave trade also applies everywhere and it is valid.The fate of the slave is totally dependent on the employer. The slave is working menial jobs.The emergence of the city (polis) is fragmented due to the specific background, the Ancient Greeks were comprised of three major categories origin communities. First Nations Doria, living in the land of Peloponesus, its capital Sparta, secondly, the nation Ionia, lived in the land of Attica, the capital city of Athens; Third, Aeolia nation, living in Northern Greece, the capital Olympia and Delphi; despite mutual hostility, they still recognize that he came from a common ancestor, which Hellen. Therefore, they call themselves as a nation Hellen and called their land as Hellas and it will bring up the culture of Hellenism.
(B) The development of the Ancient Greeks. At the beginning of the 7th century BC to the 6th century BC Yunanu Kono fragmented in some policies. The policy of competing and fighting power. In antarpolis competition, the polis Sparta and Athens were eventually dominate Greek history.(1) Policy Sparta. Polis Peloponesus Sparta is located in the southern peninsula. Sparta was a strict military state, especially after the uprisings in the region in the 7th century BC. Lycurgus Sparta held a prominent reform legislation related to public affairs, the military and all the life of citizens of Sparta closely. That made Sparta a strong military state. Every citizen of Sparta are conscripted at age 20. The youth should participate in sports, healthy and heavy military and began familiarized with the ways of life that hard. Physical education is preferred whereas science, literature and art are ignored. Society must not be the simple life and save a fortune. Treasure of individuals considered dangerous.Sparta has built up its military forces to deal with the nation's Tanggu Athens and foreign nationals from outside the Ancient Greeks. As a result, the Poloponnesia war (431-404 BC) Sparta defeated Athens. However, it weakens the Greek peeprangan finally conquered by Philippus of Macedonia in 338 BC. The head of government Sparta held by two hereditary kings who had unlimited power. King serves as head of government, warlords and religious leaders. Implementation of the supreme government was entrusted to a board comprised of five Ephor (Council of Ministers).All decisions must be reached with the agreement. To distribute the opinion of the people, formed The Parent Council (gerousia) consisting of 28 people and made up of people who have aged 60 years and over. His job preparing legislation to be submitted to the House of Representatives. Members of Representatives consists of all the citizens of the city and met setipa full moon. Decision of the House of Representatives can be vetoed by the Board of The Old.Spartan society divided into two groups. The first group is the nation Doria which are full citizens. The second category is the conquered nations that have no rights at all. Most people live from agriculture Sparta. The farm is worked by slaves, while the military has the good life in the dorms. Bergitulah properties arisratis military government run by Sparta. The composition of government policy consists of: first, the King (head of government), and second, the People's Council (eklesia), third, High Council of Justice (ephoria); fourth, Old People Council (gerousia);
(2) Athena Polis is located in Attica peninsula. Athena almost everything is different from Sparta. Life in Athens more democratic society and individual rights guaranteed by the State. Athena People pay more attention to the arts, sports, science, philosophy, and freedom of thought and found a strong attitude. Due to these factors, Athens grew into the center of culture and science that gave birth to the great philosophers, like Socrates (400 BC), Plato and Aristotle (300 BC).(A) Socio-Economic Life. Athena Society more heterogeneous and divided into social classes are real. Top class consists of the nobility, State officials, warlords and warriors. Among the quite luxurious life. The middle class made up of businessmen, traders and sailors. The economy is pretty good group. Meanwhile, the lower classes made up of farmers, artisans, unskilled laborers and slaves, their livelihood is quite heavy with an uncertain fate. Athens has grown to become the largest trading center and shipping in the Mediterranean influence in the region and Asia Minor. Traded goods such as wine, wheat, olive oil, wood, metals, iron, copper, gold, silver, pottery and the slaves.
(B) System of government. Athena was originally aristocratic form of government. Power is only held by the nobility only. Thanks to the persistent struggle of the lower layer, shape Athens government finally turned into a democracy. Solon is considered instrumental in laying the foundations of democratic governance (600 BC). Athena the form of a government policy is as follows: first, the head of government held by the Archon Sembilang (Council of Ministers) are replaced annually. Each Archon led a particular area of each according to ability, and second, the supreme power is held by the House of Representatives or the Boule, whose members consist of independent people (not Helot). The board is in charge of lifting Archon, hold accountable and prosecute the Archon Archon who do wrong; Third, the defense and security held by ten experts who mastered the tactics of war army and navy. In a state of war, the commander is more powerful than the Archon; fourth, the judiciary is held by the Supreme Court called Aeropagos and assisted by Heliaca (lower court). Members Aeropagos there were also members of the Boule and never became Archon. An official of the State may be replaced even ostracized by the people. This was done because it was considered too authoritarian officials and considered dangerous to the survival of democratic countries. The way in which the entire population is to collect those who already have the right to vote at a specified time. They were asked to write down on pot shards (ostracon) the name of an officer who was considered too authoritarian. If the name of the officer who wrote it reaches 20%, then it's official replacement. System as it was called ostracism ostracon word.
(C) Being Athena Power Center and leader of the Ancient Greeks.In 492-448 BC, the Ancient Greeks repeatedly at war with Persia.Nevertheless, the efforts of the Ancient Greek susuah finally defeated the Persians. Persian army hefty can be expelled from the country. At the time of the war against the Persians throughout the Ancient Greeks united to defend freedom. However, after the war returned Ancient Greeks divided between Sparta and Athens so again there is competition and conflict. Ancient Greek victory against the Persians to Athens Arrogant. Athena was most instrumental in the war because they have a large fleet and strong.Therefore, Athena considers all policy as conquests. If the violation of Athena then the policy will be attacked. With so Athens was powerful in all of Ancient Greece. Heyday took place in 460-429 BC under the rule of Pericles. Pericles was an emperor who is competent, patriotic, and honest. Athens became the mirror of life and pride for the entire Ancient Greek. At that time many grand buildings built and beautifully decorated with ancient Greek gods.For example, building on the Acropolis. Almost all of Ancient Greece (except Sparta) under the influence of the power of Athens.They were required to pay tribute. Trade and shipping covers the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea. At the time of Pericles, the influence of the people on the course of government loom large, are as follows: First, further expanded suffrage to the bottom of the second, the law will be enforced should be discussed in advance; Third, the parliament must convene every month ;
(D) Belief Ancient Greeks, the ancient Greeks worshiped many gods or nature of polytheism. God was regarded as human beings and reserve the human nature as well, but bigger, more beautiful, and not die. The gods of Olympus were residing in a hill under the leadership of the god Zeus. The god who was worshiped by the Greeks, among others, the following: Zeus is the leader of the gods; god Apollo (son of Zeus) was the god of Science and Literature; god consort Hera was Zeus; Phalas god Athena (son of Zeus) was the god of Arts, Philosophy and the City Protector; god Poseidon is the God of the Sea; god Ares is the god of war; god Hermes is the god of Commerce; God is the God of Love Aphrodite;To honor and worship the god Zeus every four years since 776 BC sports and arts festival held at the Mount Olympia. There they made the race a variety of sports. Sports and arts festival participants came from all regions of Ancient Greece, whether it's the people in the country and the population of ancient Greek abroad. Each athlete must sportsmanship and good behavior. Any cheating in a game would be a severe punishment. Race and evening entertainment turned out to be a positive influence. Ancient Greeks from different regions can meet and get to know each other and become involved in intimate relationships. That way, they still are one big family, the Ancient Greeks. The Games were originally derived from Ancient Greek now evolved into a world sporting event known as the Olympics.(E) Culture of Ancient Greece(1) Age of Homer. In 1000-800 BC in Ancient Greece has developed an advanced culture, especially in the field of literary arts. Literary and artistic figures of ancient Greek poet known at the time was Homer. Because of the greatness of the era Homer Homer called age. Her work is known is Illias and Odysseus. Illyas is a poem that tells people Troia war. In this war the Ancient Greeks use tactics Horse Troia and can achieve victory. The work of Homer, viz Odysseus (Ullysses) is a poem which tells the wanderings of Odysseus after the fall Troia.
(2) Age of Glory Athens. Ancient Greek culture has developed very rapidly in the heyday of Athens under Pericles (460-429 BC). DI between cultures which is famous as berkut:(A) In the field of art and architecture Parthenon temple on the Acropolis hill is the result of art famous architect named Iktinus. The temple served to worship the god Phalas Athens. statue of ivory and gold works of Phidias; discus thrower statue Miron's work; Script drama contains comedy, sad story, or the story of the tragedy work of Aristophanes, Aeschylus and Sophocles.
(B) In Bindang Philosophy. Science filsafa arise because of the fresh climate in free thinking. The most famous Greek filsu are as follows:i) Socrates (469-399 BC). Socrates asked the Athenians to cross swords about life and encourage free thinking and honest. He also teaches the need humans have a sense of humanity terhhadap fellow beings, courtesy, justice, virtue, and piety. Socrates also taught the importance of human thought inductive, which took the conclusions of some reality. Because his thoughts were. Socrates was accused of not recognizing the gods of Ancient Greeks and misleading the people that he was executed.ii) Plato (427-347 BC). Plato's Socrates students are smart and diligent writing literature and political science. He argued that the State should be led by the cunning, clever, wise and prudent.iii) Aristotle (384-322 BC). Aristotle taught the correct way of thinking (logical) and systematic. Therefore, Aristotle dubbed the father of logic.(C) In the field of Sciencei) In the field of astronomy and geography, the Greeks knew that the earth is round and rotates on its axis. They also have to know the stars and the seasons;ii) Herodotus and Thucydides was a historian who is very well known. Heredotus called the father of history.
iii) Pytagoras is an expert in the science of finding Dalil Pytagoras wake, the sum of the squares of the two sides of a right-angled (triangle) is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. He lived circa 750-500 BC.iv) Hipocrates known as a pioneer of the health sciences. He has described the cause of the disease and how to treat it in his APhorismen and Prognose.
v) Archimedes, Thales and Democritus are experts in the field of natural sciences. Thales is considered the Father of Natural Sciences.